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Thursday, March 10, 2011

Tuesday, January 25, 2011

What To Do If Your Child Has a Fever

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There is some medical disagreement concerning the medical need for Temperature control. Some doctors recommend paracetamol to lower temperature others do not. Usually children and adults feel better and function better it their temperature is reduced to near normal


Remember paracetamol is very dangerous in overdoseIf your child's temperature is above 37.50C, give Paracetamol ("Panadol" is a common brand) in a dose according to your child's age - follow the dose instructions on the label and repeat the dose every four hours if necessary.
Do NOT give more frequently.

Remember:
Place body temperature is 370C. If you take the temperature by placing the thermometer under the arm then add IC to obtain the Internal Temperature.  For example: If the underarm Temperature is 36.80C then add 10C to obtain the internal temperature of 37.80C which is the temperature you act on. If your child's temperature is above 38.50C, give Paracetamol and then a tepid sponge bath: Fill the bath with tepid water (not cold water).

Place the child in the bath and wet the child's head with a face cloth. Continue to run the water over the head and body until your child's temperature comes down to 37.50C or less. This may take 20 minutes or more. Do not leave the child unattended in the bath. Take the child's temperature every 10 minutes while in the bath. If the child is shivering then remove the child from the bath immediately.

Shivering increases internal body temperature. Pat the child dry - rubbing dry also increases body heat. Alternatively, you can just let the water evaporate without drying your child.


If your child has a fit because of the high fever, immediately lie the child on its side - this will protect the airway and the child will not swallow its tongue. Do not place objects such as spoons or fingers in the child's mouth. It is very frightening to see a fit but try to stay calm and keep reassuring yourself it is unlikely your child will have any lasting effects from that fit. It is unlikely epilepsy will follow. However subsequent fits with high fevers are more likely.


If the child's fit lasts longer than 5 minutes, call a doctor or take the child to the Hospital Accident & Emergency or call an ambulance.

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How to Tell if Your Baby is Really Sick

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Use the ABCT Fluids In, Fluids out system:
A is for Arousal, Alertness & Activity.
A baby is at much higher risk if it is more drowsy than usual, cannot wake properly, does not respond to normal stimulation and is less active. The more drowsy, the more serious is the illness. If there are periods of normal activity and alertness, serious illness is less likely.
B is for Breathing difficulty.
This is characterised by a heaving chest with indrawing of ribs and sternum or grunting with breathing.
C is for Circulation.
Poor circulation is shown by being suddenly and persistently pale all over or having cold legs up to the knees.
T is for Temperature.
If your baby has a Temperature 38oC or & 36.4oC then seek medical advice.
Fluids In:
Feeding less than half normal over 24 hours.
If a baby is breast fed then consider the frequency of feeding and the duration of active sucking over 24 hours. If bottle feed, count up the volume of milk taken over 24 hours and compare it with the baby’s normal intake.

Fluids Out:
Fewer than 4 wet nappies per 24 hours.
In babies under 6 months of age this is an indication of increasing risk of dehydration.
Remember:
- The more of these symptoms present, the higher the risk of serious illness.
- Review is essential with babies: If any doubt with babies seek medical advice.

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How To Get To Sleep

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Many people experience sleep difficulties during their "settling in" period in Jakarta or any other post.
1. Go to bed only when you are tired. Do not eat, drink, read, smoke or watch TV in bed. Get up if you are not sleepy.
2. Get up at the same time every morning. Set your alarm clock.
3. Avoid spicy food, caffeine, or too much liquid with your evening meal. Coffee, tea, chocolate and cola drinks contain caffeine.
4. Keep nights free from stress. Don't think in bed. Deal with problems when they happen during the day. Don't let them build up and dominate your sleep time.
5. Do not drink alcohol before bed. A night cap will induce lighter sleep and sleep will be less refreshing.
6. Exercise after work and before dinner. Morning exercise does not induce sleep and late evening exercise makes sleep more difficult.
7. Control noise. Older people are more easily disturbed by noise.
8. Have a hot shower or bath immediately before going to bed.
REMEMBER:          
·          Alcohol and sedatives are only a temporary solution. Their long term use will disrupt your sleep.
·          Not everyone needs 8 hours sleep.
If you are having a real problem with early morning ()  wakening  and can’t get back to sleep then contact the hospital

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Tuesday, December 21, 2010

HOW TO LOSE WEIGHT

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Weight gain is common during a Jakarta posting: “A 10kg posting”.

Sadly the additional weight appears on the bottom first and then works its way up. Weight loss goes in the opposite direction.
You cannot exercise a specific area to lose weight. Exercise just tones the muscles in that area which helps hide the fat.

HOW TO LOSE WEIGHT:
1. Avoid anything sweet.

2. Avoid anything fatty.

3. Eat less of everything else.

4. Take regular mild to moderate exercise at least 3 times per week.
5. Aim to lose a maximum of 0.25 kg per week (or 13 kg per year).

Remember:
• "Dieting makes you fat."

• If you follow any diet especially a crash diet you will almost certainly finish up heavier than when you started the diet.

• Try to establish a long term habit of more appropriate eating and exercise rather than multiple diets.

• Authorities recommend the popular Low Carbohydrate High Protein diet not be followed for more than 12 months

TRY HERBAL TO LOSS YOUR WEIGHT AND TO MAINTAIN YOUR WEIGHT From the ION KLINIK
Take 1 tablet before 7 am
And
Take 1 Tablet before 1 pm
For 45-90 days
After you get your ideal take 1 tablet to maintain the weight for 45 days

A Price: Rp.250.000 for Herbal (loss weight)
           Rp.150.000 for Maintain Herbal
For delivery Post:International Rp.50.000/box
                        Overseas Rp.25.000/box
                        Around Jakarta Rp.10.000

You can order to Erna
email address:sagalaerna@yahoo.com
Ph:081317057129
BCA Account No.5240093431 (Erna Tambunan)



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Cause of Malaria

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Malaria is caused by a microscopic sized parasite called Plasmodium.

This process involves a very complex mosquito - human being life cycle:
A female Anopheles mosquito itself infested with a Plasmodium parasite bites a human being. This parasite which has multiplied in the mosquito salivary glands is then injected into that person's bloodstream.

The Plasmodium parasite then moves to the human liver where it multiplies again. It is later released into the human blood stream which causes the symptoms of Malaria. The infected human being is subsequently bitten by another mosquito which in turn bites and transmits Malaria to another human being.

The commonest forms of Malaria are Plasmodium vivax which is rarely fatal and Plasmodium falciparum which can be fatal. The other forms, P.ovale and P malariae are not so important.

Incidence:
• Malaria is one of the 10 most prevalent and fatal diseases worldwide. Approximately 1.5 -2.7 million people die from Malaria each year with 300-500 million people infected at any given time.
• About 90% of cases are in sub Sahara Africa with most fatalities in young children in remote rural areas.
• About another 6-7% of Malaria cases are from India, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Colombia and the Solomon Islands.
• Indonesia has a relatively low incidence of Malaria especially large cities and major tourist areas e.g. Jakarta and Bali. Risks are greater in remote areas.

Prevention of Malaria
1. Be aware of the local incidence of Malaria:
• Not always easy to get this information.
• Overall risk in Indonesia is about 1:50,000 but varies greatly with location eg risk much higher in Irian Jaya than Bali.
• Likelihood of contracting Malaria increases with time spent in the area.

2. Reduce exposure to Mosquitoes:
• Obsessive prevention of mosquito bites reduces the risk of contracting Malaria about ten -fold.
• Use mosquito nets preferably treated with permethrin unless in reasonable standard accommodation in a low risk area.
• Spray an aerosol insecticide in your room before retiring.
• Use mosquito coils or vapourising mats containing pyrethoid.
• Cover arms and legs from dusk to dawn – the time when the female Malaria mosquito bites.
• Avoid dark areas or garden areas from dusk to dawn.
• Use mosquito repellents preferably those containing DEET eg “RID”, “Tropical Strength AeroGard”, “Autan” (a local brand).
• Wear light coloured clothing.
• Scent attracts mosquitoes –avoid perfumes and after shaves.

3.Preventive Medication:
• The objective of preventive medication is to prevent death caused by Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.
• No drug is 100% effective in preventing Malaria.
• Drugs do not prevent initial infection. Mosquitoes still bite and parasites will be transferred to your blood stream.
• It is reasonable not to take Malaria preventive drugs if you are only visiting a Malaria area for up to 3 days: Obsessive mosquito protection should be sufficient.
• The choice whether or not to take preventive medication is yours.
• Malaria may be up to 10 times more common in those who do not take any drug prevention in known Malaria areas.
• About 50% of people do not take the preventive medication as directed.
• All preventive drugs have side effects, usually but not always mild.
• Resistance to preventive drugs is a major problem. Assume all of Indonesia has Chloroquin resistance.
• Which preventive drugs to take depends on many factors. This should be discussed with your doctor.

Early Diagnosis and Treatment:
• Malaria has no specific symptoms eg it can mimic Flu, Pneumonia, Gastroenteritis etc. Shivering, headache & high fevers are common.
• Malaria symptoms usually occur more than 7 days after infection but symptoms may occur weeks or months later.
• ANY fever on return from or while travelling in Indonesia may be Malaria and MUST be investigated within 48 hours of onset. Young children and pregnant women are particularly at risk from Malaria. See a doctor and insist on a Malaria screen.
• If appropriate treatment is started by the fourth day of illness(not infection) then the adult Malaria patient is not likely to die.
• If you are travelling in an area more than 24 hours from medical help consider taking an Emergency Self Treatment Pack for Malaria. Further treatment on return home will still be necessary. Discuss with your doctor.
• Pregnant women and young children should think seriously about travel in known Malaria areas. Our advice is not to travel unless necessary.


Preventive Malaria Drugs:
Discuss preventive treatment with your doctor well before you leave. Your past medical history, any drug allergies, other medication you are taking, whether you are pregnant and the age of children traveling will influence drug choice.

The most commonly used Malaria preventive drugs are:
1. Doxycycline


• Dose is 100mg per day starting 2 days before travel and continuing for 4 weeks on return.
• Not suitable for pregnant women and children under 8 years.
• Common side effects: Nausea, indigestion, increased sensitivity to sunburn, thrush in females.

2.Malarone
• Dose is 1 tablet per day starting 1-2 days before travel, continuing 1 tablet a day and 7 days on return.
• Suitable for children(Malarone Junior)

3.Mefloquine ("Lariam"):

• Dose is one tablet per week taken on the same day each week starting one week before travel and continuing for 4 weeks after return.
• Suitable for pregnant women in the second and third trimesters and can be given to children over 3 months of age but discuss first.
• Common side effects: Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headaches -usually transient. Occasionally confusion, anxiety, agitation, depression, sleep disorders. Incidence of all side effects is low but discuss with your doctor.

4.Other Drugs:
Fansidar, Chloroquin, Proguanil plus Chloroquin combination are also used but not usually recommended by your doctor.


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Life Is Meaningful

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Jumlah manusia di dunia ini sungguh banyak. Miliaran orang menghembuskan nafasnya setiap hari. Tapi, apakah kita semua sudah menentukan apa tujuan hidup kita? Sudah kita pastikan untuk apa kita bernafas setiap hari?

Jangan-jangan kita hidup hanya untuk menghabiskan umur yang diberikan Tuhan saja. Bagaimana dengan anda? Anda sudah tentukan tujuan hidup anda? Syukurlah kalau sudah. Dan, saya berdoa semoga tujuan anda tercapai.Kata orang tua, hidup di dunia itu cuma sebentar. Saking sebentarnya, ibarat orang mampir minum. Sayang kalau waktu yang cuma sebentar ini tak berarti. Tapi, tak semua orang bisa dengan mudah menentukan apa yang ia tuju dalam hidupnya. Kita semua mesti melalui perjalanan yang panjang.
Dan, mungkin berliku-liku.

Baru kita menemukan apa sebenarnya yang kita cari dalam umur yang pendek ini. Tujuan hidup bukan ambisi, tapi lebih pada sebuah jati diri.
Ketika anda sudah menentukan apa yang anda tuju, ya itulah diri anda. Untuk hal itulah anda hidup.

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Tuesday, March 23, 2010

Healthy Diet Food

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1. Berries
All berries are low in sugar and high in fiber. Blueberries have been shown to increase memory in lab studies, and raspberries and strawberries are loaded with ellagic acid, a powerful antioxidant that seems to have some anti-cancer properties, according to the American Cancer Society.

2. Beans
Beans are extremely high in fiber, which helps to control weight, prevent or manage diabetes and blood sugar, and may help prevent colon cancer and protect against heart disease. The National Institute of Medicine recommends 25-38 grams of fiber a day. The average American gets only 4-11 grams. One cup of beans provides 11-17 grams.

3. Nuts
Some of the largest and most important long-term studies of diet and health have
shown that eating nuts several times a week is consistent with a risk of heart attack and heart disease that is 30%-50% lower than the general population. Just one ounce of nuts-almonds, macadamia, Brazil , walnuts, pecans-eaten three to five times a week seems to be the magic number.

4. Wild Salmon
Fish is the ultimate anti-aging food. Cold-water fatty fish like wild salmon, sardines, mackerel and herring contain omega-3 fats that protect the brain and the heart, improve mood, and lower blood pressure and triglycerides.

5. Raw Milk
Raw, organic milk nearly always comes from grass-fed cows and contains high levels of cancer-fighting CLA (conjugated linolenic acid) as well as a rich assortment of vitamins, minerals and beneficial bacteria (like Lactobacillus acidophilus)

6. Grass-Fed
Meat Meat from grass-fed cows has a much different fat profile than ordinary supermarket meat: high in omega-3s, lower in potentially harmful omega-6s and loaded with CLA, a kind of fat known for its anti-cancer activity. A superb source of protein and vitamin B12, it's also missing the antibiotics, steroids and hormones found in the meat that comes from feedlot farms.

7. Eggs
Considered by many to be nature's most perfect food, the egg is high in protein and relatively low in calories. The yolk contains choline, one of the most important nutrients for the brain, as well as lutein and xeazanthin, two critical nutrients for eye health. Brassica Vegetables Cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and kale all contain plant compounds called indoles that help reduce the risk of cancer. In addition to a stunning range of vitamins and minerals, they also contain sulforaphane, an important plant chemical that helps the body detoxify health-damaging chemicals.

8. Apples
Not only do they keep the doctor away, they also appear to do the same for lung cancer, diabetes and asthma. An apple contains five grams of fiber and a rich blend of nutrients including the bone-building vitamin K and the anti-inflammatory nutrient quercetin. And there's no better way to control your appetite than an apple eaten about half an hour before a big meal.

9. Onions and Garlic
In an impressive number of published studies, the consumption of onions and garlic has demonstrated protective effects against stomach, prostate and esophageal cancer. Along with broccoli, tea and apples, onions and garlic are among a select group of foods found to reduce mortality from heart disease by 20%.

10. Pomegranate Juice
Called "a natural Viagra" by researchers at Tel Aviv University , pomegranate juice is loaded with antioxidants. Studies show it can reduce blood pressure and plaque in the arteries. New research indicates it also slows the progression of tumors.. Four to eight ounces a day is highly recommended.

11. Green Tea
Though all teas are great for you, green tea has a unique profile of plant chemicals that have anti-cancer activity. It's now fairly established that green tea may help prevent the following types of cancers in humans: bladder, colon, esophagus, pancreas, rectum and stomach. If that's not enough, it also appears to help with weight control.

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Sunday, February 28, 2010

Blood Tipe

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The human body contains one of four main blood types: A, B, AB and O.
Each blood-type also has an accompanying Rhesus or Rh factor of either positive or negative.
The most commonly found blood-type in the world is O positive while the rarest is AB negative.

From the U.S population it was determined that the percentages of blood types were as follows.
- O positive ~ 38.4%
- O negative ~ 7.7%

- A positive ~ 32.3%
- A negative ~ 6.5%

- B positive ~ 9.4%
- B negative ~ 1.7%

- AB positive ~ 3.2%
- AB negative ~ 0.7%

So what blood type do you have? Are you reasonably rare like me (O-) or do you
Have a more common popular blood type?

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Wednesday, November 4, 2009

What is H1N1 Flu?

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H1N1 Influenza A, or “swine flu”, is a new form of influenza caused by a mixture of Influenza A viruses from pigs, birds and humans. It was first identified in Mexico but has since spread to many countries in the world.

What are the symptoms?
The symptoms are similar to seasonal flu - sudden fever (over 38ºC) and cough, sore throat, headache, generalised aches and pains and shortness of breath although vomiting and diarrhoea may also be present. Young people are being affected more than older people.

How is this H1N1 flu spread?
It is spread from person to person in the same way seasonal flu spreads: through droplets released when a person coughs, sneezes or talks. If these get into a healthy person's nose or mouth, the person can get infected. Sometimes people get infected when they touch an object with flu virus on it, then touch their mouth
or nose. Flu viruses can live on shared objects (doorknobs, keyboards, counters, etc.) for up to 48 hours. They can live on clothes or materials for up to 12 hours.

What drugs are available for treatment?
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and Zanamivir (Relenza) are currently effective in treating the illness. However, so far, most cases have been mild and have not required treatment with antiviral medication

Is it safe to eat pork and pork products?
Yes. H1N1 influenza has not been shown to be transmissible to people through eating properly handled and prepared pork or other products derived from pigs. The H1N1 influenza virus is killed by cooking temperatures of 160°F/70°C.
Is there a human vaccine to protect from swine influenza?
Vaccines have been developed that protect against the H1N1 “swine” Influenza. It is to be hoped that all Embassy people will be protected from the disease by being immunized.

What can be done to reduce the risk of catching flu? (Risk Reduction Measures)
• Cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue and discard into a bin. Use upper sleeve if tissue not available.
• Be aware of viruses possibly living on shared surfaces e.g. door knobs, lift buttons, microwaves etc – clean them frequently with soap and water, detergent or alcohol. This will kill the H1N1 influenza virus.
• Wear gloves when cleaning shared items, discard after use and wash hands.
• Wash hands with soap and water frequently and thoroughly.
• Avoid close contact with people who appear unwell and who have fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, fatigue and diarrhoea / vomiting.
• Practise good health habits including adequate sleep, eating nutritious food and keeping physically active.

What preparations can be made at home now?
Keep stocks of items such as:
• Thermometer – the diagnosis of H1N1 Flu includes a temperature recorded above 38ºC.
• Tissues and soap or medicated alcohol based hand gel.
• Medications: Paracetamol, throat lozenges, decongestants.
• Food supplies for one week in case household members require home isolation.
• Masks, if available

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